Lincoln grew tired of the delays and issued an order for the army to advance. McClellan balked and was able to convince the President that further delay was necessary. The objectives of taking Richmond and destroying the northern Confederate army were not achieved.
Lincoln was displeased; McClellan responded by publicly criticizing the president and the War Department. He repeated his success with whipping the soldiers into fighting shape and was able to stop the army of Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Antietam.
Lincoln was again dismayed and in November removed the general from his command. McClellan waited for another military appointment, but none was forthcoming. Meanwhile, he emerged as a political figure. In McClellan received the party's nomination and, early on, appeared to be in excellent position to defeat Lincoln in the Election of Improving reports from the front, however, enabled Lincoln to win handily in the fall.
McClellan resigned from the army and took his family on an extended tour of Europe.
The Army of the Potomac
Remaining active in politics, McClellan was elected governor of New Jersey in His final years were devoted to traveling and writing. McClellan was a truly brilliant military engineer and superior administrator. His lack of battlefield initiative, however, demonstrated a great weakness in the educational program of West Point where the emphasis was on training technicians, not warriors. He died in Orange, New Jersey, on October 29, The Civil War on the Virginia Peninsula is the first comprehensive pictorial history interpreting the events that occurred on the Virginia Peninsula d The Class of From West Point to Appomattox: No single group of men at West Point--or possibly any academy--has been so indelibly written into history as the class of Reynolds , also captured, and George Meade , who was wounded.
Keyes and one of the two IV Corps divisions were left behind permanently as part of the newly-created Department of the James, while the other division, commanded by Brig.
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During the Second Battle of Bull Run, the III and V Corps were temporarily attached to Pope's army; the former suffered major losses and was sent back to Washington to rest and refit afterward, so it did not participate in the Maryland Campaign. The V Corps attracted controversy during the battle when Fitz-John Porter failed to execute Pope's orders properly and attack Stonewall Jackson's flank despite his protests that James Longstreet's troops were blocking the way.
Pope blamed the loss at Second Bull Run on Porter, who was court-martialed and spent much of his life attempting to get himself exonerated. In the Maryland Campaign, the Army of the Potomac had six corps. Mansfield just two days prior to Antietam, where he was killed in action. At Antietam, the I and XII Corps were the first Union outfits to fight and both corps suffered enormous casualties plus the loss of their commanders so that they were down to near-division strength and their brigades at regimental strength after the battle was over.
When Burnside took over command of the army from McClellan in the fall, he formed the army into four Grand Divisions. Following Fredericksburg, Burnside was removed from command of the army and replaced by Joe Hooker. Hooker immediately abolished the Grand Divisions and also for the first time organized the cavalry into a proper corps led by George Stoneman instead of having them ineffectually scattered among infantry divisions.
The I, II, and XII Corps retained the same commanders they had had during the Fredericksburg campaign, but the other corps got new commanders once again.
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William Franklin also left the army for the same reason. Edwin Sumner, who was in his 60s and exhausted from campaigning, departed as well and died a few months later. The I and V Corps were not significantly engaged during the Chancellorsville campaign. During the Gettysburg Campaign, the army's existing organization was largely retained, but a number of brigades composed of short-term nine-month regiments departed as their enlistment terms expired. George Stoneman had been removed from command of the cavalry corps by Hooker after a poor performance during the Chancellorsville campaign and replaced by Alfred Pleasanton.
George Meade was suddenly appointed the commander of the army on June 28, a mere three days before the battle of Gettysburg. One corps commander Reynolds was killed, another Sickles lost a leg and was permanently out of the war, and a third Hancock was badly wounded and never completely recovered from his injuries. The VI Corps had not been significantly engaged and was mostly used to plug up holes in the line during the battle. For the remainder of the war, corps were added and subtracted from the army. Those parts of the IV Corps that remained on the Peninsula were reassigned to the Department of Virginia and disbanded on October 1, Eight of these corps seven infantry, one cavalry served in the army during , but due to attrition and transfers, the army was reorganized in March with only four corps: Of the original eight, I and III Corps were disbanded due to heavy casualties and their units combined into other corps.
The IX Corps returned to the army in , after being assigned to the West in and then served alongside, but not as part of, the Army of the Potomac from March to May 24, Philip Sheridan 's Army of the Shenandoah , and the 2nd Division alone remained under Meade's command. On March 26, , that division was also assigned to Sheridan for the closing campaigns of the war. Parke took brief temporary command during Meade's absences on four occasions during this period. Grant , general-in-chief of all Union armies, located his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac and provided operational direction to Meade from May to April , but Meade retained command of the Army of the Potomac.
Below is the grand recapitulation of the losses susteined by the Army of the Potomac and the Army of the James , from May 5, to April 9, , compiled in the Adjutant-General's Office, Washington:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Union army.
For the Confederate army of the same name, see Confederate Army of the Potomac. Commanders of the Army of the Potomac at Culpeper, Virginia, Warren , William H. French , George G.
The Army of the Potomac
Meade , Henry J. Hunt , Andrew A. Humphreys , George Sykes. List of costliest American Civil War land battles. Formations of the Union Army. Department of the East: District of Harper's Ferry Kanawha District. District of Arizona Department of the Northwest:
Related McClellan Organizing the Grand Army
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