German Monitor , Volume: Christine Anton and Frank Pilipp. The articles assembled in this book discuss important questions about German society and the very notion of what being German means in the age of globalization and the vanishing of nation-states in a continuously strengthening European Union; the question about what is German culture in a postmodern era; and how the past affects and shapes the present and future of hybrid German generations.
Taking into account not only national but also transnational and recent global developments and concomitant critical debates, this book continues to engage in the discourses of rethinking German national identity, exploring socio-cultural, literary and cinematic responses by German, German Jewish, and other minority authors and filmmakers. These essays focus particularly on trends since the turn of the millennium, and explore how these trends and their new developments are represented and interpreted through the eyes of different media.
Remapping German Sensibilities in the 21st Century will appeal to readers with a wide variety of academic interests, including cultural history, film studies and contemporary German literature, German-Jewish and Minority literature. More Options Prices excl. Contents About Restricted Access. Editors Beyond Political Correctness. Repositioning German Identity By: Catastrophic History, Trauma and Mourning in W.
Historiography and Memory Politics: A Human Being or a Good Jew? Hiring managers do not expect this outcome. This suggests blind performance auditions are a powerful tool to manage bias and address the pervasive and incorrect assumption that elite pedigree best predicts performance of on the job skills. In addition to blind auditions, transparency and accountability also support more meritocratic outcomes. Recently, Castilla published the results from a longitudinal study he conducted with the same large service-sector company that he had studied years earlier.
Drawing on research showing that transparency and accountability reduce bias because, among other things, transparency provides the information needed to track inequity and accountability puts people on notice that their decisions will be monitored, Castilla counseled the company on actions they could take. The company then made many changes such as creating a performance-reward committee to monitor compensation increases and sharing information with top management about pay broken down by gender, race, and foreign nationality.
When Castilla analyzed the data five years after these changes were introduced he found that the demographic pay gap had disappeared. American beliefs about the rightness of meritocratic ideals often leads to the belief that those ideals are what guides society. Diese junge Frau aus Hamburg traut sich was: Und hier geht es zur Facebook-Seite von Mona Harry: At the time, Holocaust scholars were mainly interested in researching the decision-making behind the Holocaust — how Adolf Hitler and other top Nazis actually directed the Final Solution to take place.
So, Lower, too, was looking for key documents at archives in Ukraine that might shed light on this question. As she began digging further, she found countless other files indicating that women did indeed play active roles in the German war effort in a variety of ways. Lower set out to create a more realistic portrait of these women, one that is just as nuanced and detailed as the study of male Nazis, and discover how women got involved in the war effort, why, and what they did.
In her lecture, Lower told the stories of three women featured in the book. The first, Erna Petri, was tried and convicted along with her husband for crimes perpetrated during the Holocaust. Another young woman went to Ukraine to work with the German Red Cross, entertaining German soldiers who were stationed on the Eastern front. Lower said that for many young women, going east felt like an adventure and was an opportunity to leave their hometown for the first time in their lives. Finally, a large number of the women perpetrators were secretaries who performed administrative work for SS commandants.
They would maintain lists of Jews who were to be killed, destroy documented evidence of crimes, and control safes that contained secret orders. Learning the stories of these women has made it even more important for Lower to further investigate the role of German women in the Holocaust and share these stories with the public so that we can finally view female and male perpetrators and bystanders equally.
Other scholars have stated that genocide cannot happen without the broad participation of society, Lower noted. Women like Erna Petri and her contemporaries reveal the darkest side of female activism, she added. While the cost of college education in the US has reached record highs, Germany has abandoned tuition fees altogether for German and international students alike. An increasing number of Americans are taking advantage and saving tens of thousands of dollars to get their degrees.
I had never liked small talk; for me, it seemed to be directionless chit-chat about nothing in particular. Invitations to small talk were everywhere, invited by neighbors, friends, guests, my assistant at the office. It was there at dinner parties, on train rides, and on planes—should I ever give an opening to the person sitting next to me to talk.
Those were matters truly worthy of conversation. In recent years, however, I have changed my mind about small talk. There is another story to be told about its value, and its special importance as we grow older. For me the story began when I was giving a month of lectures at a university in St.
Because there was no guest-house for professors, I was quartered in the spacious apartment of an year-old widow. At the same time, I was trying to better my fluency in the language, so a little conversation with her seemed a good idea. I began to notice, however, that as I asked her questions about her life, and intensely sought to comprehend her replies, a transformation began to take place. Her reticent voice acquired volume; her timidity gave way to humorous story telling. As the days went by, I too began to change. I found myself listening not to improve my language skills, but because she was simply fun to be with.
I became animated by the exchanges, and by the end of two weeks we were rollicking good friends. At the end of my stay, parting was indeed sweet sorrow. When I returned to visit her the following year, much of her buoyant energy had sadly disappeared. So, where lies the magic power of small talk? I trudge onward in silence. With the second, the clouds now gain a new and more positive meaning. I may even chuckle. My step becomes lighter. For in her humorous response, Mary injects importance into the otherwise mundane.
My interest is heightened. At the same time, she affirms my significance to her. I am brought into being as a person whose words—even if otherwise trivial—hold value. And so it is, as we grow older, as the ranks of our age-mates begin to thin, and the demands of working life are lessened, that we can appreciate anew the life-giving potentials of small talk. In the cheery greetings, a brief chat with neighbors, trading stories on the telephone, or sending small notes by email, text or mail, we animate the world about us.
And in our daily lives with our partners, the small acts of appreciation, the attention we give to their well-being, the sympathetic gaze, or just the way we are energized when they enter the room, is significant. With small talk we affirm the significance of the realities we have created and enrich the world in which we live. Paula aus Portugal und Dokumentarfilme, u. Von Romantik keine Spur. Seit schreibt sie auch, unter anderem Kurzgeschichten, die mehrfach ausgezeichnet werden.
Es ist kein Trauer-, sondern ein Trostbuch geworden: Es ist ihre neunte Auszeichnung. Frauen gab es damals anscheinend noch nicht. Und so fehlt denn auch bei bibleserver. Tag, der Tag des Wochenfestes, gekommen war, waren sie alle beisammen. Seine Antwort zwischen den Zeilen lautet: Gut vernehmlich sagt er: Wir stecken in einem Dilemma. Im Moment finden Tausende von Menschen den Tod. Doch dieser Begriff geht fehl.
Man kann dieses Programm jederzeit wieder aufnehmen. Das aber wollen Europas Sicherheitspolitiker nicht. Also schien es opportun, das Programm zur Rettung durch eines zur Kontrolle zu ersetzen: Das tut Berlin aber nicht. Was ist mit den Kosten? Und es stimmt ja: Menschenrechtsschutz sind nicht billig. Indeed, it was not until years later that Teege, a German-born black woman who was given up for adoption as a child, discovered that one of the central characters in the film, Amon Goeth, was her grandfather.
Many viewers recall the figure of Goeth, the brutal commander of the Plaszow concentration camp in Poland — played in the film by Ralph Fiennes — from the scenes in which he shoots Jewish inmates from the porch of his home. But Teege, who had not been in touch with either her biological mother or biological grandmother for years, had no idea about the identity of her grandfather.
She opens her book by describing the visit to a library in Hamburg to look for material on coping with depression. While there, she happened to notice a book with a cover photograph of a familiar figure: I hoped to find answers to questions that had disturbed me and to the depression I had suffered from. Thus Teege embarked on a long personal journey in the wake of the unknown family heritage. Only afterward did I begin to analyze the situation and try to understand the characters of my mother and my grandmother. I only started to learn more about my grandmother at the end.
Today I understand that I went through the process step by step, peeling away layer after layer. But in the first months I had no idea what to do. Teege was born on June 29, , in Munich, the offspring of a brief affair between her mother and a Nigerian man. That also marked the end of the loose ties she had had until then with her mother and her grandmother. The only black girl in the Munich neighborhood where she grew up, she was often the butt of insulting remarks about her skin color.
In , after graduating from high school, Teege went to Paris, where she became friends with a young Israeli woman, Noa Berman-Herzberg, now a screenwriter. Teege arrived in Israel the following year, toured around worked on a tourist boat in Eilat and had a brief affair with an Israeli man. After they broke up, she decided to remain in Tel Aviv. She learned Hebrew, received a B.
She left the country in My German origin generated interest — not because of the Holocaust or Nazism, but mainly because of [then] recent events, such as the toppling of the Berlin Wall and the unification of Germany. Years later, when she discovered her actual roots, she recalled the many Holocaust survivors she had met at the Goethe Institute. They came because they wanted to speak and hear German, the language of their old homeland, she notes in her book.
When she saw the numbers tattooed on their arms in the camps, she felt for the first time that there was something disadvantageous about belonging to the German nation — something that demanded an apology. Teege shared her rented apartment in Tel Aviv with the actor and director Tzachi Grad, then at the start of his professional career.
The fact that it turned out years later that her grandfather was a sadistic Nazi is no reflection on her, even if some of the genetic matter and traits came from him. After leaving Israel, Teege moved to Hamburg and started to work in an ad agency, where she met her partner, Goetz Teege. They have two children. When she found out that Amon Goeth was her grandfather, she entered psychotherapy. The therapist himself burst into tears when he heard her story at their first meeting, but afterward helped her cope with the questions that hounded her.
After the war, Goeth faced trial in Krakow on after being accused of genocide, including responsibility for the death of 8, people in Plaszow and the murder of some 2, more during the evacuation of the Krakow Ghetto. He denied responsibility for the crimes, and said he had only been following orders. He was hanged in September Goeth never saw Monika, the daughter he had fathered a year earlier during an extramarital affair he had with Ruth Irene Kalder, a young German woman w ho worked as a secretary in the Wehrmacht; Goeth's wife had remained behind in Austria.
His plan to divorce his wife and marry Kalder was dashed when he was arrested and executed. For years Kalder denied his crimes and claimed she knew nothing about them; she and Teege never discussed the subject. We enjoyed being together. My Goeth was the king, and I was the queen. In , when Teege was 13, her adoptive parents told her they had seen mourning notices in the paper for her biological grandmother. They did not know that Ruth Irene Goeth she had changed her surname after the war had committed suicide in the wake of a serious illness — and also, apparently, because of belated regret for her moral blindness during the Holocaust.
I ask her whether she succeeded in her mission. When I returned to Germany after the visit, I felt a certain release. I wanted to let go of the past but not to make it disappear. I managed to achieve distance. In her book, Teege describes her quest to learn about her grandparents, mother and biological father whom she did not meet until adulthood. She also talks about the difficulty she had sharing her life story with her Israeli girlfriends.
She remembered that relatives of two of her friends had perished in the Holocaust, although she did not know whether they had relatives in the ghettos and camps where her grandfather had served. With some apprehension, she renewed the connection with her friends, and told Berman-Herzberg the whole story. Later that year, Teege visited Israel, and she and Ben Moshe met for a long talk.
Teege accepted the invitation, told the students her story and replied to their stunned questions. Her book ends with an account of the extraordinary ceremony that the teenagers from Israel conducted together with her, in memory of the victims in the camp of which her grandfather was commandant. Teege is very excited about her upcoming visit to Israel. I lived in Israel for five years, I have friends there and I know the mentality a little. I am coming as a private person, even though I know that I am more than that. The survivors who were in contact with me see me differently.
I am so different from the figure of my grandfather. Some of them, who were in touch with me after the book came out in German, responded very warmly and said that reading my story was a kind of closing of the circle for them. She expects to meet with the younger woman during her visit here next week. He asked me what I intended to do with them, and I offered them to him as a present. He ordered one of the soldiers to take the puppies, and sent me to the side with those who would remain alive. During her time in Plaszow, Birnhack saw Goeth only at camp roll-calls — or when he shot inmates from the porch.
She, her sister and her parents were among the Schindler survivors. And particularly not now, just a few days before we commemorate the 70th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz. But yes, I love my country. Since the terror attacks in Paris, the movement has grown: The police counted 25, demonstrators on Jan.
It canceled its Jan. Our neighbors and allies are asking whether Germany is stumbling back into the darkness of xenophobia, and rightfully so. Many Germans are asking the same question these days. There are two ways to look at the situation. The optimistic take is to note that, for all the attention Pegida gets inside of Germany and abroad, Germany has never been as liberal, culturally diverse and open toward minorities as it is today.
Last year a biennial poll conducted by the Friedrich Ebert Foundation , a foundation associated with the left-wing Social Democrats and thus unlikely to underestimate the problem , found that anti-foreigner attitudes were at a historic low. While its poll found that about a quarter of Germans reported hostile views toward foreigners, only 7.
And anti-Semitism, which is on the rise elsewhere in Europe, has dropped significantly, to 4. Apart from the polls, there is quite a bit of evidence for a new openness. In Leipzig, 4, pro-Pegida protesters were met by 30, counterprotesters. Meanwhile, all over Germany, private initiatives are popping up to help refugees. In Duisburg, a local politician has collected bicycles for refugee children. In Zirndorf, doctors are providing refugees with free medication. Still, the enormous support for Pegida requires us to consider another, darker reading of the situation, as evidence of troubling developments within German society.
One is the failure of mainstream politics. There is a tendency among the major parties to move toward the center of the political spectrum, creating an ideological void at its far right and left ends. Another change revolves around the Internet. In this view, the Pegida people are just the usual frustrated lot looming at the edges of society. And a third is the persistence of regional differences. Though Pegida has drawn support in western Germany, it is strongest in the former East Germany.
In the East, xenophobic attitudes are still more common than in the West, for a complex mix of reasons, including higher unemployment rates, but also because of feelings of inferiority. We also have to ask what Pegida says about Germany, whatever its causes.
Beyond Political Correctness
It certainly indicates that the relative social peace we are experiencing right now is fragile. But it also shows how the country, still new to the multiethnic game, is struggling with its identity.
For decades, Germany was able to pretend that the guest workers were just that, guests. But the third generation of Turkish immigrants is now reaching adulthood.
- Remapping German Sensibilities in the 21st Century.
- Editions of The Dead and the Gone by Susan Beth Pfeffer.
- Roman Kent, Auschwitz-Überlebender und IAK-Präsident!
At the same time, immigration numbers are rising: Many came from the Southern European countries that still suffer from the euro crisis, but last year Germany also welcomed some , refugees, mostly from Syria, Eritrea, Serbia and Afghanistan. The white face of German society is changing at a rapid pace. In this context, the Pegida protests are getting such attention because they act as a weekly checkup of German society. Last week, a year-old refugee from Eritrea was found stabbed to death near his apartment in Dresden.
Neighbors reported that swastikas had been painted onto the door of his apartment.
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Germans held their breath. Was this a neo-Nazi murder? Was there a connection to the Pegida rallies? Why should our neighbors? However the investigation turns out, I am an optimist, believing that we will not see history repeated. This is long overdue. Prominent conservative politicians like Peter Tauber, the secretary general of the Christian Democratic Party, have demanded a new, clearer framework for immigration. It was the simple acknowledgment of a simple reality. Anna Sauerbrey is an editor on the opinion page of the daily newspaper Der Tagesspiegel.
This Op-Ed has been updated to include developments in the news. Germany has boomed in popularity in recent years. But it also has a sexist secret which is blemishing gender roles and representations in society. However, the German media still leaves much to be desired in catching up in the fight to stamp out casual sexism. Unlike the public sexism of lecherous stares and wolf-whistling which I'd unfortunately become accustomed to in daily life in Britain, in Germany it appears to be rooted much deeper in conservative traditions.
Mummy Merkel As the country with the longest-serving female leader currently in office, it would be logical to think that Germany would have come on in leaps and bounds in accepting women in roles of leadership and power. But the press couldn't even give Angela Merkel her credit where it was due. In similar fashion, as Merkel celebrated her 60th birthday in July last year, the German media went to town, providing the nation with a plethora of life accounts of the chancellor.
Political target Television, as the number one mass media outlet, has without doubt the greatest influence on impressions and misconceptions of gender representations in Germany. But earlier this month, when Katja Suding - leader of the Free Democrats in the city state of Hamburg - appeared on television show "Tagesschau," German broadcaster ARD chose to transport the nation to a largely bygone era of s television production.
From behind the scenes, one camera man decided to treat Germany's viewers to a panning shot over the politician's legs - a perspective of Suding which many viewers deemed as sexist. The 'Wurst' in promotion Advertisement in Germany has also been a top contributor to categorizing gender image in recent years. But it is by no means only women who are subjected to "passive sexism" in the promotion of products in Germany.
The company's Facebook page was inundated with complaints that Ferrero was categorizing what was deemed as suitable for boys and girls. Another recurring offender of gender role stereotyping in Germany is Aptamil, which continues to launch a string of television adverts for baby formula milk, showing a mother at home, feeding her baby. According to the chain of adverts, at least, German fathers are incapable of bottle feeding a baby.
As Germany continues to encourage new fathers to take advantage of their paternity leave, the somewhat elusive father figure across the adverts is hardly doing anyone any favors. When the employment discrimination law was enforced upon the European Union in , several German lawyers rejected the two directives, claiming that there was no sexism in Germany.
Day-to-day tell-tale signs, however, show that the widespread tradition of specific gender roles remains very much an issue in Germany's media outlets. The largely hidden attitude of casual sexism, which has become a subtly engrained part of Germany's culture, appears to be being drip-fed into society and remains ignored in many quarters. But if it doesn't pick up the pace, Germany may soon be left behind with 20th century gender relations, while the rest of us pursue a life of gender equality. Mary Berg, born and raised in Poland, was nineteen in March , when she stepped off a prisoner-of-war exchange ship from Lisbon and onto a dock in New York.
She stood with her American-born mother, her Polish father, and her younger sister, clutching a suitcase that contained her U. Before she cleared immigration, she met Samuel L. Shneiderman, a journalist who had come from Poland a few years earlier. Thirty-seven at the time, Shneiderman had worked as a reporter in Warsaw, become the Paris correspondent for a few Polish dailies, and covered the Spanish Civil War until he left Europe in Judging from pictures, she cut a striking figure, tall and sturdy, with dramatic dark looks and gigantic eyes.
However it happened, he learned about her journals and convinced her to let him edit them. The grim facts Berg described are familiar to us now—all too familiar; we can easily fail to register their horror—but American readers in did not know them. Here, in brief outline, is the story the excerpts told: Berg was fifteen in the autumn of , when the German army invaded her native city of Lodz. She and her family fled, walking and bicycling the seventy miles to Warsaw.
The ghetto was officially established about a year after the family settled in. Berg felt guiltily aware of her advantages. In some ways, her accounts of daily life are astonishing for the normality they portray: But all that was short lived, and her accounts of the outrages she saw on the street are equally astonishing: She watched them leave from the prison windows. Soon after, in February , L. Fischer—a German press that fled Europe and established temporary wartime headquarters in New York in —published the diary in book form with a dust jacket Berg herself had drawn, an image of the brick wall that marked the ghetto boundary.
She marched on City Hall with signs demanding action to save Jews still alive in Poland. She gave talks before audiences and interviews on the radio. And then she, along with her book, disappeared. On the surface, the two teenage diarists had a lot in common. Both were from well-off families, both wrote about the hardships they suffered. But Frank was hidden from the full horror of the war while she wrote her diary; her entries necessarily focus on her own emotional development and the quotidian aspects of life in a small space.
Berg stepped out into the streets and saw atrocities every day. Her words bear witness to the suffering and violence all around her and make her tale harder to take. Lawrence Langer, author of the landmark study Holocaust Testimonies: The Ruins of Memory , puts it this way: Pentlin interviewed Shneiderman in the early s, a few years before he died, and he told her that Berg walked away from the book at some point in the early s.
Sometime earlier, in , L. Fischer disbanded its American outpost and returned to Germany. Wyn, publisher of Ace Books, an imprint famous for its paperback genre novels and, at the time, for its stinginess toward authors. Wyn sat on the rights. After he died in , his widow sold them back to Shneiderman.
Berg still refused involvement. Until the diary was republished last year, interest in it had been scarce. Historians and researchers knew of it, certainly, as it appeared frequently in bibliographies of Holocaust studies, but it was only in the mids, when a Polish version was published for the first time and a Warsaw theater staged a dramatic reading, that public attention rekindled briefly. And when Pentlin contacted her in about the possibility of reprinting the book, Berg responded bitterly. It goes without saying that Berg was one of the lucky ones.
Unlike Anne Frank, she escaped Europe alive. Her family escaped with her, and she saw her story published. If you check some of the early reviews, you will see how eager most of them were to transform this into a heroic story. Had we the right to save ourselves? Here everything smells of sun and flowers and there—there is only blood, the blood of my own people.
Berg published her diary as a call to action. A little more patience, and all of us will win freedom! Is it grim to wonder what would have become of Anne Frank had she survived Bergen-Belsen, what would have become of her book? It was too late to be alive now. I was a saint. With memoir, it is the fact of a life outside the pages that gives the book its aura. If the life that comes after is one of triumph over adversity like, say, Elie Wiesel we derive something different—a sense of hope, perhaps, or at least satisfaction.
The story that comes after it is not tragic or triumphant; there is, in fact, no story. A terrible, true event took place, and someone lived to tell about it, and the world responded either indifferently or with misguided sympathy, and many hundreds of thousands more died despite the truths that had been told. After that there was nothing left to say. At the forefront of that memory is the Third Reich and the Holocaust.
But there is more than that, and one of the ways that German history is not like other European histories is that Germans consciously use it as a warning to act differently in the future. This is very different from Britain or France, where most public engagement with history, in terms of monuments and memorials, is to honour valour and heroism, with little public recognition of any wrongdoing, or of follies that might have led to the wars in which the valour had to be demonstrated.
What is striking about German war memorials is that they look forward not back—a characteristic clearly visible in their parliament building. The historic Reichstag was burnt out in , with the fire blamed on the communists and used to advantage by the Nazis. During the war it was badly damaged, then occupied by the Russians. After reunification the decision was made to restore it, but the marks of the fire, as well as graffiti made by Soviet soldiers, were left untouched, as a reminder to legislators that if you get things as wrong as Germany did then the consequences are unimaginably terrible.
An MP travelling to the Reichstag today will pass not only the Holocaust memorial but also memorials to the killing of homosexuals, disabled people and Roma. When they get to the building, they find it topped by a huge glass dome, to which the public have access. So not only do you have an emblem of a transparent legislature, but the public can literally exercise oversight over their government—a direct reversal of the situation under both the Nazis and the Stasi.
In effect the building is a meditation on different aspects of history. I can't think of another country in the world that lives so closely with the acutely uncomfortable reminders of its past in order to help it act more wisely in future. In making our radio series, British Museum exhibition and book we have tried to look at objects that evoke memories of which pretty well all Germans can say "this is part of me".
Some are obvious, such as the Gutenberg Bible. Every German knows that Germany invented printing and, in that sense, made the modern world. But we have also tried to focus on elements that the British public might not be so familiar with, as well as areas of German history about which there is still a reticence in Germany.
People talk about the Holocaust very honestly and fully, but subjects such as the huge civilian losses from allied bombing raids are little discussed, unlike in this country. Yet it remains a potent memory. It has always been the British Museum's job to present the history we need in order to make sense of now. Germany is the European state we most need to understand if we are going to comprehend both Europe, and the world. Sieren and Chang Ping, a Chinese journalist. The dispute raises questions that go to the heart of ideas of historical crimes and responsibility: Can a massacre and its aftermath — hundreds, possibly thousands, died in Beijing — ever be explained, even excused, in this way?
Chang is a former editor at a Chinese newspaper, Southern Weekly, and his writings have been banned by the authorities. Censorship means Chinese are not allowed to remember what happened, Mr. Among them is Marion Detjen, an author and researcher who specializes in contemporary history at Humboldt University in Berlin.
The fact that it happened is enough to make clear it is a symptom and an expression of problems in the political culture. Describing Tiananmen, which he made clear he views as a tragedy, Mr. Sieren used a historically loaded term used by some postwar historians to explain Nazism: There was an expression for it: That view changed only as society began to accept that there was more to it, that Germany had within itself certain elements that had made fascism, and the pogrom against Jews, possible.
Sieren said he was unaware of such connotations of Ausrutscher, and had not heard of its use to describe the Nazi era. It never happened again, which is a fact. They never used tanks against their own people again. Naja, alle abgesehen von dem "Massemba". Man spricht von "Altersweisheit". Es gibt aber keinen Weisheits-Studiengang und keine Ausbildung zur Weisheitsfachkraft. Neuerdings versuchen Wissenschaftler, ihr auf die Spur zu kommen. Doch sicher ist bisher nur: Sie wird oft schmerzlich vermisst. Und so geht Lebenszeichen den uralten und brandaktuellen Fragen nach: Wer ist weise und warum?
Was macht Weisheit aus? Diese will, dass sie Musikerin wird. Aber die Enkelin will tanzen. Ein Marzipanei liegt auf dem Tisch, ein Nougatosterhase. Sie sagt, ihr Leben sei ganz normal gewesen. Sie habe nichts erlebt.
Dieses eine Interview will sie noch geben, dann keins mehr. Up to a million people were murdered by their neighbors in roughly a hundred days, and you could reasonably expect that tragedy, guilt, shame, and rage continue to weigh heavily on the Rwandan people. The skeletons of genocide victims are still occasionally discovered, stuffed into sewers and under dense bushes. Fragments of bone and teeth still turn up in church parking lots. And by and large the country is still oddly devoid of dogs: During the genocide the animals acquired a taste for human flesh and had to be exterminated.
But today Rwanda bears few obvious scars of its cataclysm. Its rapidly modernizing capital, Kigali, is one of the jewel cities of Africa. A lacework of tree-lined boulevards and greenswards rises and falls over a cradle of verdant hills and valleys. New construction is transforming the city center, with upscale hotels, a grand shopping mall, and a state-of-the-art convention center. The airport bustles with tour operators picking up clients arriving to visit Rwanda's national parks, which hold the nation's famous mountain gorillas.
Add to that Rwanda's rising standard of living, steady economic growth, and low incidence of corruption, and you have a country that in many ways is the envy of the continent. Life here bears no relation to the darkness that descended over the nation beginning on April 7, To find evidence of that period, you have to look into the hearts of the people where those memories lie buried. During today's official events, Rwanda's leaders will urge its people, if not to forget, to set aside many of their bitterest memories to help sustain the country's impressive progress.
Remembering is a tricky thing. It can release a river of volatile emotions that can drown you in sorrow or shame, and it can also unleash a torrent of vengeful anger. But forgetting is equally treacherous, lest those who were lost died in vain or the crucial lessons learned are not passed on to future generations. Rwandans of all walks of life navigate this complex riptide of emotion every day, each in his or her own way. It is far more art than science.
Read, see photos and videos in the rest of the article…. Und selbst die Nonnen revoltieren gegen ihren untergeordneten Status. In Asien ist die patriarchale buddhistische Welt noch weitgehend in Ordnung. Es gab aber schon immer Rebellinnen, weibliche Buddhas und hochverehrte Meisterinnen. Sie gerieten nur in Vergessenheit. Und werden nun wieder aus der Versenkung geholt. You can download the article here. Tens of thousands of them fled their homeland after Hitler came to power in , and those who remained were stripped of their citizenship by the Nuremberg laws in Most were murdered in the Holocaust.
At the end of the war, a Jewish population that had numbered , just 15 years earlier was reduced to about 37,, according to the U. In the past two decades, however, Germany has become a country that people flock to instead of flee from. And this right applies to their descendants as well.
In recent years, more and more are actively doing so — last year, about 2, Jews from around the world were naturalized as German citizens. Horovitz falls into the practical camp: Having German citizenship will allow him to stay in Germany with the woman he loves, a German psychologist, without being restricted to the usual stay tourist visa. The vast majority of Jews who reclaim German citizenship under Article are the children or grandchildren of Holocaust survivors or refugees from Nazi Germany.
Not only was his case a rarity, but the two men hit it off when they met last November at a Lehrhaus event at the Jewish Community Library in San Francisco marking the 75th anniversary of Kristallnacht. Horovitz relayed his personal story at the event, and Rothen acted as moderator; each was impressed with what the other had to say. The offer to become German citizens while maintaining their American citizenship has resonated for many in the Bay Area. For Miriam Zimmerman , a year-old Holocaust educator living in San Mateo, it was a way of connecting with her father, a doctor who attended medical school in Berlin and fled in , settling in Terre Haute, Ind.
I would be a German Jew living in Germany. She is proud of her German roots and thrilled that her three grown children became citizens as well, which means all three of her newly born grandchildren will, too the paperwork for new babies is minimal. She can have her pick of European universities. He remembers that when he was growing up, his mother had a distaste for all things German.
But when he learned a few years ago that he was eligible for citizenship, he researched the matter and decided to do it. My grandparents were deprived of their citizenship, and this is getting something back that was taken away from our family: Though he later found out he had sufficient paperwork to prove his lineage, he was still glad to have found the old document. Those interviewed who have had their German passport for a few years said it is an added convenience when traveling in Europe. So she whipped out her German passport and made the flight.
The ability to work in Europe was the reason two Bay Area—bred cousins decided to apply. Aaron Kaye, 31, from Los Altos and working for a technology company in London, and Moraga native Dan Aufhauser, 40, who works in Paris, share a set of grandparents who fled Germany. Their grandmother left in , when she was prevented from studying medicine as a Jew, and their grandfather traveled back and forth to the U.
Both were from wealthy banking families. The two were introduced while he was on a business trip, and it was she who convinced him to leave Germany and his seemingly promising banking career in Munich. Kaye first heard about the possibility of citizenship reinstatement from Zimmerman, who is a family friend. Initially ambivalent, he decided to go forward when he prepared to attend graduate school in London and realized with a German passport he could stay longer and work there. Once he had his German citizenship, he was able to accept a job the company offered him in Paris with no additional paperwork.
His wife can legally work in Europe as well through his German passport. I was always the one asking my grandmother questions, connecting with our story. Rothen, the German consul general, understands how that is the case for some applicants: Berkeley poet Elana Levy , 73, and her year-old daughter Daniella Salzman of Oakland, a teacher, are among those who reclaimed citizenship for more emotional reasons. Levy grew up in New York, speaking German at home. Levy and Salzman, both of whom have made the healing process with Germany a big part of their lives, received their German citizenship last December and their passports in February.
I could relate to both prisoners and keepers of them. There is a brokenness in me, even though I never lived it. The homeless community of Berlin now has the option to go to back to school: They are primarily taught by volunteers — some of which were formerly homeless — and held in various rooms across the city. The courses give the homeless the option to study art, cooking, philosophy, music and a number of other subjects. These are also meant to instill confidence in their abilities to serve the community, as well as help incorporate them into society.
Eimertenbrink conducted a study in , in which he examined the success of similar such institutions in Europe, as well as the interest homeless people in Berlin had in the idea. When asked what the homeless were most keen on learning, the majority expressed interest in computers, foreign languages and history.
The program is led by an organization called Berlin Piloten, which organizes city tours, class visits to Berlin and education for the homeless. Does your father talk to you about sex? Wouldn't you at least like to try a bit of the pork, after all? They just wanted to get to know me, I thought.
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